Breakthrough Medical Technology
Single 3D SafeScan
Continuous 3D Scan
The Right Stuff
Frequently Asked Questions
- How does the DVIS differ from a CT Scan? The CT was designed and developed in the 1970s and 80s. It transforms light energy measurements in one dimension (1D = a line) into light energy measurements in three dimensions (3D = a volume). This line is actually a narrow beam of light. The CT uses conventional xray radiation. A CT rotates around an object and moves foward one line at a time like a screw thread. The DVIS transforms light energy measurements in two dimensions (2D = a plane) into light energy measurements in three dimensions (3D = a volume). This two dimensional plane is actually a photo. The photo is acquired by means of a special video camera known as a scanner which operates at 30 or 60 frames per second. The DVIS uses fluoroscopy xray radiation. This much more efficient transform, DVIS 2D to 3D vs CT 1D to 3D, is made possible with the help of a massively parallel super computer which was not available when CT was coming of age.
- How does the Single 3D SafeScan product differ from the Continuous 3D Scan product? The hardware component of the SafeScan product produces 180 two dimensional images. The hardware component of the Continouous Scan product broadcasts a steady constant stream of 2D images over a dedicated internal network channel. The software component for the two products uses the same common shared 2D to 3D transform algorithm. Most other aspects of software component of the two products contrast and the details are still being worked out and await FDA approval of the hardware component.
- What happens if a patient moves while the Single 3D SafeScan is acquiring data? The current version of this product requires that a patient stay still for 6 seconds. The follow on version of this product will do the job in 1 second. The follow on version of the product will also expose the patient to the equivalent of only 1 dental xray of radiation. As the DVIS orbits at a higher velocity and the scanner operates at a higher frames per second rate the consequences of fidgeting diminish and the patient is exposed to a lower amount of radiation.
- Does the fast spinning of the DVIS make the pictures blurry? Light travels at a speed of 300,000 kilometers per second. The lateral motion of the DVIS is negligible compared to this speed. Also keep in mind that relative to the xray generator the scanner does not move as the DVIS rotates.
- If adding xray generator/scanner combinations makes for better image quality why not just add more? The Imaging3 patent covers adding more xray generator/scanner pairs. The problem with adding too many more combinations is that light is both a particle and a wave. Using an analogy it would be like an intersection with green lights for all cars. Particle collisions and crashes occur which scatters the light. The sources of light need to be synchronized like traffic signals on our street corners. Disney's Hyperion project harnesses and controls the chaos of light scattering in a virtual environment for the purpose of motion picture animation. In real life light scattering due to photons crossing paths is a serious problem that is not feasible to overcome.
- Will running in Continuous 3D Scan mode expose the patient to too much radiation? First off, the first version of the Continuous Scan product will perform two 3D refreshes per second. This rate requires no more and no less radiation exposure than a typical conventional C-Arm which is used today. Secondly, 3D viewing capability might allow an operator to perform a procedure much quicker than using the current limited C-Arm 2D view. Thirdly, Continous Scan can be used for applications other than medicine. It is a 3D vision system that can be used to guide end effectors for robotics. If it is used to harvest, process, or prepare food for example the task could be finished in several seconds.
- Have you looked into using Virtual Reality (VR) to display and manipulate 3D models? Yes, we have considered VR and came to the conclusion that it is great for viewing but deficit at navigation. For now Roll/Pitch/Yaw and Zoom buttons are used for demonstrating DVIS capabilities until a better way to navigate 3D models appears on the market.
- Which technology is on the Imaging3 wish list? 16 bit per color monitors. The human eye cannot discern more than 8 bits = 256 per RGBO (Red, Green, Blue, Opaque) color. The xray world operates using 16 bit grayscale values, not 8 bit RGBO values. What ends up happening is radiology applications destroy or dumb down half the image quality in order to fit in the 8 bit per RGBO color space of commercially available monitors. Expensive 10 bit per color monitors are available but the data stills needs to be reduced to fit.
- What are the limits of the DVIS? If the goal is to use inexpensive common off the shelf (COTS) components then 60 frames per second scanners are the bottleneck to acquiring data. Special custom video cameras that capture visible light are capable of acquiring images at a rate of 20,000 frames per second. If cost is no object then such a camera can be converted to work with fluoroscopy xrays and mounted on a DVIS. The deciding factor to the limits of the DVIS with this setup would be the rate of spin rather than frames per second rate. The new paradigm is that the amount of radiation exposure needed to produce a single manipulatable 3D model depends solely on the period of the orbit. For example if the DVIS rotates at 3 revolutions per second this would allow for Single 3D Scan to do its job with the equivalent of 2 hours of exposure to natural background radiation that we all encounter in every day life and the Continuous 3D Scan to perform twelve 3D refreshes per second. How fast can the DVIS spin? For every orbit per second increase the amount of radiation needed to produce a 3D model decreases. At a ridiculously high rate the amount would be equivalent to one second per second, in other words no radiation. Thus the DVIS, in theory, may be able to produce 3D models with no xray radiation.